Effective TeachingEffective teaching is a process by which an individual or group’s learning is managed of facilitated. Five elements are involved in effect teaching, but these are not necessarily the steps in sequence.
Learning objectives. Before attempting to teach, it’s important to know what is to be taught. “What should the participants be able to do by the end of the session?” determines the learning objectives. Learning objectives are stated in performance terms. To know, understand, appreciate, or value, are “slippery words” that have no part in good learning objectives. Learn objectives should clearly state what the individual will be able to do as a result of the learning experience.In structured teaching situation, it is wise to write down the learning objectives as guidelines to the instructor. The objectives will usually determine the content of the instruction. In casual situations or “opportunity teaching” the objectives may not be written but should be clearly in the mind of the instructor.
Discovery experience. A discovery experience is any sort of happening that has three results
Knowledge is confirmed. The person discovers that he does not know. Up until now he may not have seen
Need to know has been established. He discovers that he does not know something the he must know in order to be successful in what he wants to do.
Motivation. He discovers that he wants to learn more.
Sometimes a discovery experience just happens. An alert leader can then turn this happening into a learning experience. This is referred to as an “opportunity teaching.”
In more structured teaching, an instructor often will wet up a discovery experience as the introduction to a learning activity. Discovery experiences can be simple as a leading question or as complicated as a dramatic role play.
Teaching learning. Once the discovery experience has shown what the person already knows, the instructor has some choices to make:
The person knows and can do what is desired. The learning objective has been met.
Subtract what the person knows from what is desired and work on what the person needs to know.
Give the full instruction session. The participant will learn what he needs to know and review what he already knows.
Teaching involves a variety of communication techniques. We principally learn form hearing (lecture, discussion, conversation, dramatization), seeing (reading, displays, visual aids, demonstrations), and doing (trial and error, experimenting, copying the acts of others). Each has task or skill or idea is broken down into simple steps, the learner can confirm what he now knows, needs to know, and wants to know. Thus, learning is actually a series of discoveries. Each step should lead to some success—it’s important to keep the person encouraged that he is making progress.
Application. Each individual should have an immediate chance to apply what has been learned. In some situations, application must be deferred, but immediate application is more desirable.In attempting to apply what has been learned, another discover experience will likely occur, which leads to a new learning objective, more teaching, more learning, and further application
Evaluation. Essentially, evaluation is a review of what happened to see if the learning objectives were met. In the teaching situation, we’re always checking to see, “Did it work? Do I understand? What do I do next?” In effect, the evaluation itself often becomes another discovery experience.Recycling. If evaluation shows that the person has not learned what was to be taught, there is a need to recycle—teach it again. The approach may be changed, the steps simplified, the explanation more detailed, or even the learning objectives may change.
Research has shown that learning is most effective when it is self-directed. The more deeply a person can be involved in his own learning, the more he will learn and the longer he will retain what has been learned. Teach from the point of view of the student—not the teacher. Be sure the personal objectives are met before dealing with the organizational objectives. Move from what is known to what is unknown—from what is simple to what is more complex.
It’s important to note that the five elements of effective teaching are not necessarily a series of steps each to be completed before the next is attempted. Rather, these elements are a mix of factors that can be used to plan a learning experience or evaluate its worth. The five elements are not a lock-step process by which one marches through a training experience. Training must flow and stay flexible to meet the needs of the participants.
Score interpretation 5 Very helpful - contributed to learning. 3 Helpful but some confusion and interference. 1 The Step were taken but left little impact on the learning process. (didn't get much out of it) 0 Complete bust - no evidence of concious use of the technique of effective teaching
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